AMX International AMX

The AMX International AMX is a ground-attack aircraft for battlefield interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance missions. It was built until 1999 by AMX International, an Italian-Brazilian joint venture. The AMX is designated A-1 by the Brazilian Air Force, and A-11 Ghibli by the Italian Air Force.

The AMX is capable of operating at high subsonic speed and low altitude, by day or night, and if necessary, from bases with poorly equipped or damaged runways. Low IR signature and reduced radar equivalent cross-section help prevent detection, while low vulnerability of structure and systems aid survivability, while integrated ECM, air-to-air missiles and nose-mounted guns provide self-defence capabilities.


AMX International AMX
Class Aircraft
Type Attack
Manufacturer AMX International
Production Period 1986 - 1999
Origin Italy
Country Name Origin Year
Brazil 1984
Italy 1984
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Brazil 1989 View
Italy 1989 View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
AMX International 1986 1999 200 View

The AMX has a conventional shoulder-winged monoplane. It is composed primarily out of aluminium and manufactured using traditional construction methods, however elements such as the tail fin and elevators use carbon fibre composite materials. The wing is fitted with both leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps and overwing spoilers ahead of the flaps. The spoilers can function as airbrakes and to negate lift; improving take-off and landing performance as well as manoeuvrability during flight. A hybrid flight control system is fitted, with spoilers, rudder and variable incidence tailplane operated by a fly-by-wire system, while the ailerons and elevators are operated hydraulically. Manual reversion is provided for the ailerons, elevator and rudder to allow the aircraft to be flown even in the event of complete hydraulic failure.

A Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan engine powers the AMX. During the aircraft's development, the Spey was heavier and less modern than some of the available alternatives, however it was considered to be reliable, relatively cheap and was free of export restrictions that would be imposed by using American engines. The Spey engine also enabled for the use of a simplified round-lipped inlet design. The rear fuselage is detachable in order to gain access to the engine. Separate consortiums in both Brazil and Italy manufactured the Spey for the AMX. Unusual for a strike aircraft of the era, no attempt was made to develop the aircraft to fly at supersonic speeds.

Brazilian and Italian aircraft differ considerably in their avionics. AMXs in Brazilian service are often fitted with one of three pallet-mounted sensor packages, which contain various vertical, oblique, and forward-facing cameras. A simple ranging radar is equipped for targeting purposes, however the specific radar also differs between both operators. The flight system employs a GE Avionics flight control computer. Extensive electronic countermeasure (ECM) are fitted to protect the aircraft, include passive receiver antenna on the tailfin and an active jammer pod that is typically mounted on one of the aircraft's hardpoints.

Various munitions could be mounted on the one centerline and four underwing hardpoints, including bombs, missiles and rockets. All four of the underwing hardpoints are plumbed for drop tanks to extend the aircraft's range, Italian aircraft are also fitted with a fixed aerial refueling probe. Optical reconnaissance pods can be carried externally on the centerline hardpoint. Wingtip rails are provided for infra-red guided air-to-air missiles such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder and MAA-1 Piranha. Italian aircraft are fitted with a M61 Vulcan 20 mm rotary cannon on the port side of the lower fuselage. The United States denied the sale of the M61 to Brazil, thus its AMXs are instead fitted with two 30 mm DEFA 554 revolver cannons.

The first operational squadron of the Italian air force, the 103° Gruppo of 51° Stormo formed in November 1989, with the first Italian unit also forming in 1989. Both the Italian and Brazilian AMX fleets were grounded in February 1992, following the crash of an Italian AMX due to engine failure. Operations were allowed to restart in May that year, following modification of the engines.

Italy assigned six AMXs from 103° Gruppo to operations over Bosnia in 1995 as part of Operation Deny Flight, which was followed by a similar deployment in support of the IFOR peacekeepers in Bosnia. This deployment was interrupted by another grounding, again due to engine failure, between January and March 1996. Italian AMX aircraft were used in 1999 in the Kosovo war. Instead of using unguided or more traditional laser-guided bombs, the Italian Air Force used dozens of Mk 82 bombs fitted with Opher Israeli guidance kits, effectively converting the "dumb" bombs into an infrared-guided bomb.

In the late 1990s, AMX International was considering a major engine refit, a non-afterburning variant of the Eurojet EJ200 was proposed, having considerably more thrust than the existing powerplant.[20] In 2005, the Italian Air Force launched an upgrade programme (ACOL Aggionamento Capacità Operative e Logistiche – Operational and Logistical Capability Upgrade) for 55 of its AMXs, adding a new laser INS, new cockpit displays and allowing the aircraft to drop Joint Direct Attack Munition guided bombs. In August 2007, Embraer began a major midlife upgrade programme and modernisation of 53 Brazilian Air Force AMX A-1s, focusing on avionics systems and new armament additions; the programme is estimated to have extended the lifespan of the fleet beyond 2027.

Starting in November 2009, four Italian AMX were deployed overseas for operations in Afghanistan, replacing the same number of Italian Tornado IDS in the recce role. Of particular note is the aircraft's ability to share digital electro-optical and infrared sensor information with ground troops in real time, providing valuable reconnaissance information and helping to minimise threat exposure; by the end of 2010 over 700 combat missions had been flown in the Afghan theatre. On the 28 May 2014, the AMX performed its last combat sortie in the Afghan theatre. On 20 June 2014, all remaining AMXs were withdrawn from Afghanistan.

In 2011, Italian AMX aircraft were employed during the 2011 military intervention in Libya. Italian military aircraft deployed 710 guided bombs and missiles during sorties: Italian Air Force Tornados and AMX fighter bombers deployed 550 bombs and missiles, while Navy AV-8Bs deployed 160 guided bombs. AMX aircraft for the first time used Litening III targeting pods paired with Paveway and JDAM guided bombs.

As of March 2012, the Philippines was in negotiations with Italy for the possible procurement of used AMX aircraft, although no official information has been released. Jane's also reported that the AMX is being considered for the PAF's Lead-in Fighter Trainer (LIFT)/Surface Attack Aircraft (SAA) project.

Role Ground-attack aircraft
National origin Italy and Brazil
Manufacturer AMX International
First flight 15 May 1984
Introduction 1989
Status Active service
Primary users Italian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
Produced 1986–1999
Number built ~200


General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 13.23 m (43 ft 5 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.87 m (29 ft 11/2 in)
  • Height: 4.55 m (14 ft 111/4 in)
  • Wing area: 21.0 m² (226 ft²)
  • Aspect ratio: 3.75:1
  • Empty weight: 6,700 kg (14,771 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 10,750 kg (23,700 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 13,000 kg (28,700 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Spey 807 turbofan, 49.1 kN (11,030 lbf)
  • Internal fuel capacity: 3,555l (2,700kg) internal.
  • External fuel capacity: 2x 1,000l (760kg) in inner wing and 2x 500l (380kg) in outer wing.

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 914 km/h (493 knots, 568 mph) at 10,975 m (36,000 ft)
  • Combat radius: 889 km (480 nmi, 553 mi) (hi-lo-hi profile, 900 kg (2,000 lb) of external stores)
  • Ferry range: 3,336 km (1,800 nmi, 2,073 mi)
  • Endurance: 4h 15min[39]
  • Service ceiling: 13,000 m (42,650 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 52.1 m/s (10,250 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 512 kg/m² (105 lb/ft²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.47

Armament

  • Guns:
    1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A1 Vulcan 6-barreled Gatling cannon (Italian aircraft)
    2× 30 mm (1.181 in) Bernardini Mk-164 cannon (Brazilian aircraft)
  • Missiles: 2× AIM-9 Sidewinders or MAA-1 Piranhas or MAA-1B Piranha II (under development) or A-Darter (under development), carried on wingtip rails
  • Bombs: 3,800 kg (8,380 lb) on 5 external hardpoints, including MAR-1 missiles, general-purpose and laser-guided bombs, air-to-ground missiles, and rockets

End notes