Like the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, S-3 Viking and P-8 Poseidon, the P-1 is a turbofan-powered design, and has four podded IHI F7-10 turbofan engines under the low-set wings.
The P-X and C-X designs were originally independent, but it was later decided to make some components common to both designs. Common components shared with the C-X include cockpit windows, outer wings, and horizontal stabilizer. Internal shared parts include the auxiliary power unit, cockpit panel, flight control system computer, anti-collision lights, and gear control unit. Development costs were reduced by about 25 billion yen (US$218 million) through shared components, and operation maintenance costs should also be reduced.
The P-1 has an artificial intelligence (AI) system to assist TACCO operation. Similar to the SH-60K, an advanced combat direction system directs the TACCO operator to the best flight course to attack a submarine.
Fly-by-light is an important feature, decreasing electro-magnetic disturbances to the sensors compared to fly-by-wire. The P-1 is the first production aircraft to be equipped with such a flight control system.
Sensors on the P-1, such as Toshiba HPS-106 active electronically scanned array using four antennas for 360 degree coverage (AESA), magnetic anomaly detector (MAD), and Infrared/Light detection systems, will be used to detect submarines and small vessels.
The P-1 has a bomb bay for anti-submarine weapons, as well as eight external pylons to carry ASMs or bombs.