Kawasaki P-1

The Kawasaki P-1 (previously P-X, XP-1) is a Japanese maritime patrol aircraft in service with the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force as a replacement for the P-3C Orion. The JMSDF took delivery of the first two operational P-1 aircraft on 26 March 2013.

Kawasaki P-1
Class Aircraft
Type Bomber
Manufacturer Kawasaki Aerospace Company
Origin Japan
Country Name Origin Year
Japan 2007
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Japan 2013 View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Kawasaki Aerospace Company 33 View

Like the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod, S-3 Viking and P-8 Poseidon, the P-1 is a turbofan-powered design, and has four podded IHI F7-10 turbofan engines under the low-set wings.

The P-X and C-X designs were originally independent, but it was later decided to make some components common to both designs. Common components shared with the C-X include cockpit windows, outer wings, and horizontal stabilizer. Internal shared parts include the auxiliary power unit, cockpit panel, flight control system computer, anti-collision lights, and gear control unit. Development costs were reduced by about 25 billion yen (US$218 million) through shared components, and operation maintenance costs should also be reduced.

The P-1 has an artificial intelligence (AI) system to assist TACCO operation. Similar to the SH-60K, an advanced combat direction system directs the TACCO operator to the best flight course to attack a submarine.

Fly-by-light is an important feature, decreasing electro-magnetic disturbances to the sensors compared to fly-by-wire. The P-1 is the first production aircraft to be equipped with such a flight control system.

Sensors on the P-1, such as Toshiba HPS-106 active electronically scanned array using four antennas for 360 degree coverage (AESA), magnetic anomaly detector (MAD), and Infrared/Light detection systems, will be used to detect submarines and small vessels.

The P-1 has a bomb bay for anti-submarine weapons, as well as eight external pylons[6] to carry ASMs or bombs.

On 31 August 2007 the Ministry of Defense revealed that they will procure four production airframes. The request in the FY2008 budget is 67.9 billion yen, or about US$566 million. This will make the unit price for each aircraft at US$141.5 million.

In 2013, the ministry will order two units for ¥44.5 billion. These P-1s will have increased detection/discrimination capability, flight performance, information processing capability, and strike capability as a successor to existing (P-3C) fixed-wing patrol aircraft.

The XP-1's first flight took place at Gifu Air Base in Japan on 28 September 2007. The flight lasted about one hour, and ended successfully. The P-X was redesignated XP-1 at this time.

As of March 2010, Kawasaki Heavy Industries has delivered four XP-1 maritime patrol test aircraft to Japan's Ministry of Defense.

On 8 August 2011, the Japanese Ministry of Defense announced that two aircraft used for ground testing had developed tears in various parts of the craft, including the fuel tank and central part of the fuselage. Repairs were planned to reinforce the affected areas.

Japan's Maritime Self-Defense Force took delivery of its first two P-1s on 26 March 2013, ahead of a planned two years of test flights. However, the planes were grounded on 14 May 2013, after one developed unstable combustion in some of its engines in flight.

Role Maritime patrol aircraft
Manufacturer Kawasaki
First flight 28 September 2007
Introduction 2013
Status In service
Primary user Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Produced 33
Unit cost US$167 million

General characteristics

  • Crew: Flight: 2 Mission: 11
  • Length: 38.0 m (124 ft 8 in)
  • Wingspan: 35.4 m (114 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 12.1 m (39 ft 4 in)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 79,700 kg (176,000 lb)
  • Powerplant: 4 × IHI Corporation F7 turbofan, 13,500 lbs (60 kN) each


  • Maximum speed: 996 km/h (538 knots, 619 mph)
  • Cruise speed: 833 km/h (450 knots, 516 mph)
  • Range: 8,000 km (4,320 nm, 4,970 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 44,200 ft (13,520 m)


  • Hardpoint: 8 wing stations in total (2x on each wing and 2x on each wing root) and eight internal bomb bay stations
  • Bombs: 20,000+ lb (9,000+ kg)
  • Missiles: AGM-84 Harpoon, ASM-1C, AGM-65 Maverick
  • Sonobuoys: 30+ Pre-loaded, 70+ Deployable from inside
  • Other: MK-46 and Type 97 and new(G-RX5) torpedoes, mines, depth charges


  • Radar: Toshiba, Active Electronically Scanned Array radar system
  • Sonar: NEC, multi-static sound navigation system sound
  • Anti-submarine systems:SHINKO ELECTRIC CO.LTD., Advanced combat direction system
  • Other: Mitsubishi, Electronic countermeasures (CMD, RWR, MWS, ESM)

End notes