Lockheed S-3 Viking

The Lockheed S-3 Viking is a jet aircraft originally used by the United States Navy to identify, track, and destroy enemy submarines. In the late 1990s, the S-3B mission focus shifted from anti-submarine warfare to surface warfare and aerial refueling. After the retirement of the A-6 Intruder and A-7 Corsair II, the Viking was the only airborne refueling platform organic to the Carrier Air Wing(s) until the fielding of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. 

It also provides electronic warfare and surface surveillance capabilities to the carrier battle group. A carrier-based, subsonic, all-weather, multi-mission aircraft with long range, it operates primarily with carrier battle groups as an in-flight tanker. It carries automated weapon systems, and is capable of extended missions with in-flight refueling.

Lockheed S-3 Viking
Class Aircraft
Type Attack
Manufacturer Lockheed Martin
Origin United States of America
Country Name Origin Year
United States of America 1972
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Lockheed Martin 187 View

In the mid-1960s, the U.S. Navy developed the VSX (Heavier-than-air, Anti-submarine, Experimental) requirement for a replacement for the piston-engined Grumman S-2 Tracker as an anti-submarine aircraft to fly off the Navy's aircraft carriers. In August 1968, a team led by Lockheed and a Convair/Grumman team were asked to further develop their proposals to meet this requirement. Lockheed recognised that it had little recent experience in designing carrier based aircraft, so Ling-Temco-Vought (LTV) was brought into the team, being responsible for the folding wings and tail, the engine nacelles, and the landing gear, which was derived from LTV A-7 Corsair II (nose) and Vought F-8 Crusader (main). Sperry Univac Federal Systems was assigned the task of developing the aircraft's onboard computers which integrated input from sensors and sonobuoys.

On 4 August 1969, Lockheed's design was selected as the winner of the contest, and eight prototypes, designated YS-3A were ordered. The first prototype flew on 21 January 1972 and the S-3 entered service in 1974. During the production run from 1974 to 1978, a total of 186 S-3As were built. The majority of the surviving S-3As were later upgraded to the S-3B variant, with sixteen aircraft converted into ES-3A Shadow electronic intelligence (ELINT) collection aircraft.

On 20 February 1974, the S-3A officially became operational with the Air Antisubmarine Squadron FORTY-ONE (VS-41), the "Shamrocks," at NAS North Island, California, which served as the initial S-3 Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS) for both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets until a separate Atlantic Fleet FRS, VS-27, was established in the 1980s. The first operational cruise of the S-3A took place in 1975 with the VS-21 "Fighting Redtails" aboard USS John F. Kennedy.

Starting in 1987, some S-3As were upgraded to S-3B standard with the addition of a number of new sensors, avionics, and weapons systems, including the capability to launch the AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile. The S-3B could also be fitted with "buddy stores", external fuel tanks that allowed the Viking to refuel other aircraft. In July 1988, VS-30 became the first fleet squadron to receive the enhanced capability Harpoon/ISAR equipped S-3B, based at NAS Cecil Field in Jacksonville, Florida. 16 S-3As were converted to ES-3A Shadows for carrier-based electronic intelligence (ELINT) duties. Six aircraft, designated US-3A, were converted for a specialized utility and limited cargo COD requirement. Plans were also made to develop the KS-3A carrier-based tanker aircraft to replace the retired KA-6D Intruder, but this program was ultimately cancelled after the conversion of just one early development S-3A.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the breakup of the Warsaw Pact, the Soviet-Russian submarine threat was perceived as much reduced, and the Vikings had the majority of their antisubmarine warfare equipment removed. The aircraft's mission subsequently changed to sea surface search, sea and ground attack, over-the-horizon targeting, and aircraft refueling. As a result, the S-3B after 1997 was typically crewed by one pilot and one copilot; the additional seats in the S-3B could still support additional crew members for certain missions. To reflect these new missions the Viking squadrons were redesignated from "Air Antisubmarine Warfare Squadrons" to "Sea Control Squadrons."

Prior to the aircraft's retirement from front-line fleet use aboard US aircraft carriers, a number of upgrade programs were implemented. These include the Carrier Airborne Inertial Navigation System II (CAINS II) upgrade, which replaced older inertial navigation hardware with ring laser gyroscopes with a Honeywell EGI (Enhanced GPS Inertial Navigation System) and added digital electronic flight instruments (EFI). The Maverick Plus System (MPS) added the capability to employ the AGM-65E laser-guided or AGM-65F infrared-guided air-to-surface missile, and the AGM-84H/K Stand-off Land Attack Missile Expanded Response (SLAM/ER). The SLAM/ER is a GPS/inertial/infrared guided cruise missile derived from the AGM-84 Harpoon that can be controlled by the aircrew in the terminal phase of flight if an AWW-13 data link pod is carried by the aircraft.

The S-3B saw extensive service during the 1991 Gulf War, performing attack, tanker, and ELINT duties, and launching ADM-141 TALD decoys. The aircraft also participated in the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s and in Operation Enduring Freedom in 2001.

The first ES-3A was delivered in 1991, entering service after two years of testing. The Navy established two squadrons of eight ES-3A aircraft each in both the Atlantic and Pacific Fleets to provide detachments of typically two aircraft, ten officers, and 55 enlisted aircrew, maintenance and support personnel (which comprised/supported four complete aircrews) to deploying carrier air wings. The Pacific Fleet squadron, Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron FIVE (VQ-5), the "Sea Shadows," was originally based at the former NAS Agana, Guam but later relocated to NAS North Island in San Diego, California with the Pacific Fleet S-3 Viking squadrons when NAS Agana closed in 1995 as a result of a 1993 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision. The Atlantic Fleet squadron, the VQ-6 "Black Ravens," were originally based with all Atlantic Fleet S-3 Vikings at the former NAS Cecil Field in Jacksonville, Florida, but later moved to NAS Jacksonville, approximately 10 miles (16 km) to the east, when NAS Cecil Field was closed in 1999 as a result of the same 1993 BRAC decision that closed NAS Agana.

The ES-3A operated primarily with carrier battle groups, providing organic ‘Indications and Warning’ support to the group and joint theater commanders. In addition to their warning and reconnaissance roles, and their extraordinarily stable handling characteristics and range, Shadows were a preferred recovery tanker (aircraft that provide refueling for returning aircraft). They averaged over 100 flight hours per month while deployed. Excessive utilization caused earlier than expected equipment replacement when Naval aviation funds were limited, making them an easy target for budget-driven decision makers. In 1999, both ES-3A squadrons and all 16 aircraft were decommissioned and the ES-3A inventory placed in Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) storage at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona.

Though a proposed airframe known as the Common Support Aircraft was once advanced as a successor to the S-3, E-2 and C-2, this plan failed to materialize. As the surviving S-3 airframes were forced into sundown retirement, a Lockheed Martin full scale fatigue test was performed and extended the service life of the aircraft by approximately 11,000 flight-hours. This supported Navy plans to retire all Vikings from front-line Fleet service by 2009 so new strike fighter and multi-mission aircraft could be introduced to recapitalize the aging Fleet inventory, with former Viking missions assumed by other fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft.

Iraq War

In March 2003, during Operation Iraqi Freedom, an S-3B Viking from Sea Control Squadron 38 (The "Red Griffins") piloted by Richard McGrath Jr. launched from USS Constellation (CV-64). The crew successfully executed a time sensitive strike and fired a laser-guided Maverick missile to neutralize a significant Iraqi naval and leadership target in the port city of Basra, Iraq. This was one of the few times in its operational history that the S-3B Viking had been employed overland on an offensive combat air strike and the first time it launched a laser-guided Maverick missile in combat. The first time an S-3B was employed overland during an offensive air strike was during Operation Desert Storm when an aircraft from VS-24, from the USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71), attacked an Iraqi Silkworm missile site.

On 1 May 2003, US President George W. Bush flew in the co-pilot seat of a VS-35 Viking from NAS North Island, California to USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast. There, he delivered his "Mission Accomplished" speech announcing the end of major combat in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. During the flight, the aircraft used the customary presidential callsign of "Navy One". The aircraft that President Bush flew in was retired shortly thereafter and on 15 July 2003 was accepted as an exhibit at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at NAS Pensacola, Florida.

Between July and December 2008 the VS-22 Checkmates, the last sea control squadron, operated a detachment of four S-3Bs from the Al Asad Airbase in Al Anbar Province, 180 miles (290 km) west of Baghdad. The planes were fitted with LANTIRN pods and they performed non-traditional intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (NTISR). After more than 350 missions, the Checkmates returned to NAS Jacksonville, Florida on 15 December 2008, prior to disestablishing on 29 January 2009.

Retirement

The final carrier based S-3B Squadron, VS-22 was decommissioned at NAS Jacksonville on 29 January 2009. Sea Control Wing Atlantic was decommissioned the following day on 30 January 2009, concurrent with the U.S. Navy retiring the last S-3B Viking from front-line Fleet service.

In June 2010 the first of three aircraft to patrol the Pacific Missile Test Center's range areas off of California was reactivated and delivered. The jet aircraft's higher speed, 10 hour endurance, modern radar, and a LANTIRN targeting pod allow it to quickly confirm the test range being clear of wayward ships and aircraft before tests commence. These S-3Bs are flown by Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Thirty(VX-30) based out of NAS Point Mugu, CA.

Also, the NASA Glenn Research Center acquired four S-3Bs in 2005. Since 2009, one of these aircraft (USN BuNo 160607) has also carried the civil registration N601NA and is used for various tests.

Role Anti-submarine aircraft
Manufacturer Lockheed Corporation
First flight 21 January 1972
Introduction 1974
Status Retired from carrier operations, in service with VX-30 and the Pacific Missile Range,
Primary user United States Navy
Produced 1974-1978
Number built 188
Unit cost US$27 million (1974)


General characteristics

  • Crew: 4 (Pilot, 2 x Naval Flight Officers, Sensor Operator/TFO)
  • Length: 53 ft 4 in (16.26 m)
  • Wingspan:
    • Unfolded: 68 ft 8 in (20.93 m)
    • Folded: 29 ft 6 in (9.00 m)
  • Height: 22 ft 9 in (6.93 m)
  • Wing area: 598 ft (55.56 m)
  • Empty weight: 26,581 lb (12,057 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 38,192 lb (17,324 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 52,539 lb (23,831 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 x General Electric TF34-GE-2 turbofans, 9,275 lbf (41.26 kN) each
  • *Internal fuel capacity: 1,933 US gal (7,320 L) of JP-5 fuel
  • External fuel capacity: 2x 300 US gal (1,136 L) tanks

Performance

  • Maximum speed:
    • 429 knots (493 mph, 795 km/h) at sea level
    • Mach 0.79, 450 knots (514 mph, 828 km/h) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m)
  • Cruise speed: 350 knots (405 mph, 650 km/h)
  • Stall speed: 97 knots (112 mph, 180 km/h)
  • Combat radius: 2,765 nm (3,182 mi, 5,121 km)
  • Service ceiling 40,900 ft (12,465 m)
  • Rate of climb: 5,120 ft/min (26.0 m/s)
  • Wing loading: 68.5 lb/ft (334 kg/m)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.353

Armament

  • Up to 4,900 lb (2,220 kg) on four internal and two external hardpoints, including:
    • 10 x 500 lb (227 kg) Mark 82 bombs
    • 2 x 1000 lb (454 kg) Mark 83 bombs
    • 2 x 2000 lb (908 kg) Mark 84 bombs
    • 6 x CBU-100 cluster bombs
    • 2 x Mark 50 torpedoes
    • 4 x Mark 46 torpedoes
    • 6 x mines or depth charges
    • 2 x B57 nuclear bombs
    • 2 x AGM-65E/F Maverick missiles
    • 2 x AGM-84D Harpoon missiles
    • 1 x AGM-84H/K SLAM-ER missile

The two underwing hardpoints can also be fitted with unguided rocket pods or 300 US gal (1,136 L) fuel tanks.

Avionics

  • AN/APS-116 sea search radar, maximum range 150 nm (173 mi, 278 km)
    • Upgraded on S-3B to AN/APS-137 Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar
    • OR-89 forward looking infrared (FLIR) camera with 3x zoom
    • AN/ARS-2 sonobuoy receiver with 13 blade antennas on the airframe for precise buoy location
    • AN/ASQ-81 magnetic anomaly detector (MAD)
    • AN/ASN-92 inertial guidance system with doppler radar navigation and TACAN
    • Up to 62 sonobuoys

End notes