Nieuport 10

The Nieuport 10 was a French First World War biplane that filled a wide variety of roles including reconnaissance, fighter and trainer.

Nieuport 10
Class Aircraft
Type Fighter
Manufacturer Nieuport
Origin France
Country Name Origin Year
France 1914
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Belgium View
Brazil View
Finland View
France View
Italy View
Japan View
Russia (USSR) View
Thailand (Siam) View
Ukraine View
United Kingdom - UK (Great Britain) View
United States of America View
Yugoslavia (Serbia) View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Nieuport View

In January 1914, designer Gustave Delage joined the Société Anonyme des Etablissements Nieuport, and started to design the series of aircraft that made him and the company famous. The first of these was the Nieuport 10, originally designed to compete in the Gordon Bennett Trophy race of 1914. World War I caused this contest to be cancelled, and the type was developed as a military two seat reconnaissance aircraft that entered service in 1915.

The type featured a distinctive "V" strut layout. The lower wing was much smaller in area than the upper wing, and the concept was intended to combine the strength of the biplane's wire braced wing cell with the good visibility of the parasol monoplane.

Many were converted or built as single-seat fighters by covering the front cockpit, and adding an upward-firing Lewis machine gun to the center section of the top wing. In this form, the type was used as a fighter.

Two major types were developed from the Nieuport 10 - the Nieuport 11 Bébé - a smaller aircraft, designed from the outset as a single-seater, and the Nieuport 12 - a more powerful two-seater with a larger top wing. In addition, production was undertaken of a dedicated trainer version under the Nieuport 83 E.2 designation with detail changes. A single example of a triplane, using a Nieuport 10 airframe was built to test an unusual staggered wing concept.


  • Nieuport X.B : Early designation distinguishing it from the earlier unrelated Nieuport X monoplane.
  • Nieuport X.AV : Company designation with the observer/gunner seated in the front and the pilot in the rear.
  • Nieuport X.AR : Company designation with the pilot seated in the front and the observer/gunner in the rear.
  • Nieuport 10 A.2 : Two seat reconnaissance (Artillerie) aircraft, same as Nieuport X.AR.
  • Nieuport 10 C.1 : Single-seat fighter variant. Inspired development of Nieuport 11 C.1.
  • Nieuport 10 E.2 : Nieuport 10 A.2s used for training.
  • Nieuport 83 E.2 : Purpose built trainer with detail modifications.
  • Nieuport-Macchi 10.000 : Italian built Nieuport 10 with many detail modifications.
  • Nieuport 18 or 18 meter Nieuport : Unofficial description of basic type based on nominal wing area of 18 square meters.
  • Nakajima Army Type Ko 2 Trainer : Nieuport 83 E.2 built under licence in Japan.
  • Trainer Type 2 : Siamese designation for imported Nieuport 83 E.2.

Role General purpose aircraft
Manufacturer Nieuport
Designer Gustave Delage
Introduction 1914
Status retired
Primary users Aéronautique Militaire
Royal Naval Air Service
Imperial Russian Air Service
Variants Nieuport 12

General characteristics

  • Crew: one, pilot
  • Length: 7.09 m (23 ft 3 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.20 m (26 ft 11 in)
  • Height: 2.7 m (8 ft 11 in)
  • Wing area: 18 m² (193.8 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 411 kg (905 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 658 kg (1,450 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × le Rhône 9C rotary, 60 kW (80 hp)


  • Maximum speed: 139 km/h (75 knots, 86 mph)
  • Range: 249.44 kilometers (155 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 4,572 m (15,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 2.1 m/s (410 ft/min)
  • Endurance: 2.5 hours


  • 1 × Lewis machine gun mounted atop the upper wing

End notes