The Renard R.36 was a Belgian all-metal fighter aircraft designed to replace the Fairey Firefly II within the Belgian Air Force. Designed to improve on the Renard Epervier, which was never adopted by the Belgian government, the prototype R.36 first flew on 5 November 1937. Following testing the R.36 was approved by the Belgian Air Force in late 1938, with 40 aircraft provisionally ordered, to be delivered in two years. However, on 17 January 1939 the prototype, OO-ARW, crashed near Nivelles, killing pilot Lt. Visconte Eric de Spoelberg. The official investigation was inconclusive, no evidence of material failure being discovered, with the most probable causes being radio equipment coming loose during a high-G manoeuver, jamming the controls, or the pilot becoming incapacitated. The airframe had accumulated 75:30 hours flight time. The order was then dropped in favour of licence production of the Hawker Hurricane by SABCA.