de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou

The de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou (designated by the United States military as the CV-2 and later C-7 Caribou) is a Canadian-designed and produced specialized cargo aircraft with short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability. The Caribou was first flown in 1958 and although mainly retired from military operations, is still in use in small numbers as a rugged "bush" aircraft.

de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou
Class Aircraft
Type Transport
Manufacturer de Havilland Canada
Origin United States of America
Country Name Origin Year
United States of America 1958
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Australia 1961 View
Australia View
Cameroon View
Canada View
Canada View
Costa Rica View
Costa Rica View
Ecuador View
Gabon View
Ghana View
India View
Indonesia View
Iran (Persia) View
Kenya View
Kuwait View
Liberia View
Malaysia View
Oman (Muscat) View
Papua New Guinea View
Spain View
Sweden View
Tanzania View
Thailand (Siam) View
Uganda View
United Arab Emirates View
United States of America 1961 View
Vietnam View
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) View
Taiwan View
Malta View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
de Havilland Canada 307 View

The de Havilland Canada company's third STOL design was a big step up in size compared to its earlier DHC Beaver and DHC Otter, and was the first DHC design powered by two engines. The Caribou, however, was similar in concept in that it was designed as a rugged STOL utility aircraft. The Caribou was primarily a military tactical transport that in commercial service found itself a small niche in cargo hauling. The United States Army ordered 173 in 1959 and took delivery in 1961 under the designation AC-1, which was changed to CV-2 Caribou in 1962.

The majority of Caribou production was destined for military operators, but the type's ruggedness and excellent STOL capabilities requiring runway lengths of only 1200 feet (365 metres)[1] also appealed to some commercial users. U.S. certification was awarded on 23 December 1960. Ansett-MAL, which operated a single example in the New Guinea highlands, and AMOCO Ecuador were early customers, as was Air America, (a CIA front in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era for covert operations). Other civil Caribou aircraft entered commercial service after being retired from their military users.

Today only a handful are in civil use.


  • DHC-4 Caribou : STOL tactical transport, utility transport aircraft.
  •     CC-108 : Royal Canadian Air Force designation for the DHC-4 Caribou.
  •     YAC-1 : This designation was given to five DHC-4 Caribous, sold to the United States Army for evaluation.
  •     AC-1 : United States Army designation for the first production run of 56 DHC-4 Caribou. Later redesignated CV-2A in 1962.
  •     CV-2A : United States Army AC-1 redesignated in 1962.
  •     CV-2B : This designation was given to a second production run of 103 DHC-4 Caribous, which were sold to the U.S. Army, with reinforced internal ribbing.
  •     C-7A/B : These designations were applied to all 144 Caribous transferred to the U.S. Air Force by the U.S. Army.
  • DHC-4A Caribou : Similar to the DHC-4, but this version had an increased takeoff weight.
  • DHC-4T Turbo Caribou : A conversion of the baseline DHC-4 Caribou powered by the PWC PT6A-67T turboprop engines designed, test flown and certified by the Pen Turbo Aviation company. 

In response to a U.S. Army requirement for a tactical airlifter to supply the battlefront with troops and supplies and evacuate casualties on the return journey, de Havilland Canada designed the DHC-4. With assistance from Canada's Department of Defence Production, DHC built a prototype demonstrator that flew for the first time on 30 July 1958.

Impressed with the DHC4's STOL capabilities and potential, the U.S. Army ordered five for evaluation as YAC-1s and went on to become the largest Caribou operator. The AC-1 designation was changed in 1962 to CV-2, and then C-7 when the U.S. Army's CV-2s were transferred to the U.S. Air Force in 1967. U.S. and Australian Caribous saw extensive service during the Vietnam War.

The U.S. Army purchased 159 of the aircraft and they served their purpose well as a tactical transport during the Vietnam War, where larger cargo aircraft such as the Fairchild C-123 Provider and the Lockheed C-130 Hercules could not land on the shorter landing strips. The aircraft could carry 32 troops or two Jeeps or similar light vehicles. The rear loading ramp could also be used for parachute dropping (also, see Air America).

Under the Johnson-McConnell agreement of 1966, the Army relinquished the fixed wing Caribou to the United States Air Force in exchange for an end to restrictions on Army rotary wing operations. On 1 January 1967, the 17th, 57th, 61st, 92nd, 134th, and 135th Aviation Companies of the U.S. Army were inactivated and their aircraft transferred respectively to the newly activated 537th, 535th, 536th, 459th, 457th, and 458th Troop Carrier Squadrons of the USAF. On 1 August 1967 the "troop carrier" designations were changed to "tactical airlift".

Some U.S. Caribou were captured by North Vietnamese forces and remained in service with that country through to the late 1970s. Following the war in Vietnam, all USAF Caribous were transferred to Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard airlift units pending their replacement by the C-130 Hercules in the 1980s.

All C-7s have now been phased out of U.S. military service, with the last example serving again under U.S. Army control through 1985 in support of the U.S. Army's Golden Knights parachute demonstration team. Other notable military operators included Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Malaysia and Spain.

The Royal Australian Air Force retired its last Caribou, A4-140, on 27 November 2009. The aircraft, which was manufactured in 1964, was donated to the Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

Civilian operations

After retirement from military use, several examples of the Caribou have been purchased by civilian operators for deployment in areas with small airfields located in rugged country with few or poor surface transport links.

Role STOL Transport
Manufacturer de Havilland Canada
First flight 30 July 1958
Introduction 1961
Primary users United States Army
United States Air Force
Royal Australian Air Force
Number built 307
Developed into de Havilland Canada DHC-5 Buffalo

General characteristics

  • Crew: Three
  • Capacity:
    32 troops or
    24 fully equipped paratroops or
    14 casualty stretchers
  • Payload: 8,000 lb (3,628 kg)
  • Length: 72.58 ft (22.12 m)
  • Wingspan: 95.58 ft (29.13 m)
  • Height: 31.66 ft (9.65 m)
  • Wing area: 912 ft² (84.7 m²)
  • Empty weight: 16,920 lb (7,675 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 28,500 lb (12,927 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt and Whitney R-2000-7M2 Twin Wasp 14-cylinder, 1,450 hp (1,081 kW) each


  • Maximum speed: 216 mph (348 km/h)
  • Cruise speed: 181 mph (291 km/h)
  • Range: 1,280 mi (2,060 km) (240 mi (390 km) with maximum payload)
  • Service ceiling: 24,800 ft (7,559 m)
  • Rate of climb: 1,355 ft/min (413 m/min)

End notes