Bergmann–Bayard pistol

The Bergmann–Bayard was a German designed semi-automatic pistol produced under license in Belgium.

Bergmann–Bayard pistol
Class Manportable
Type Handguns
Manufacturer Anciens Etablissements Pieper
Production Period 1901 - 1910
Origin Belgium
Country Name Origin Year
Belgium 1901
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Denmark 1914 1918 View
Denmark 1940 1940 View
Morocco 1920 1926 View
Spain 1936 1939 View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Anciens Etablissements Pieper 1922 1935 View
Anciens Etablissements Pieper 1901 1910 15500 View

Bergmann Mars

The Bergmann Mars was produced in 1901, and was the first Bergmann design aimed squarely at the military market, with a comparatively powerful 9×23mm Bergmann round. It aroused the interest of a number of armies and was the subject of several trials in competition with the Mauser C96, Mannlicher, Browning and Luger pistols.

Model 1903

The Bergmann–Bayard Model 1903 was adopted by the Spanish army in 1905 as the Pistola Bergmann de 9 mm. modelo 1903. Unable to find a German manufacturer to complete the Spanish order for 3000 pistols, Theodor Bergmann turned to a Belgian manufacturer, Anciens Etablissements Pieper (who used the trademark "Bayard") and who completed the order. The modified pistol was known as the Bergmann Bayard 1908 (not to be confused with Pieper-Bayard 1908), or in Spain as the Pistola Bergmann de 9 mm. modelo 1908. Although adopted in 1908 delivery of the approximately 3,000 weapons was not completed until two years later. Meanwhile other manufacturers such as Campo-Giro had adopted the 9mm Bergmann–Bayard round and, due to its long history of use in Spanish submachine guns, carbines and pistols, today it is most commonly known as the 9mm Largo.

Model 1910 and Model 1910/21

At the same time the Bergmann–Bayard model 1910 was adopted by the Danish military. A total of 4,840 M1910 Bergmann Bayards was initially delivered to the Danish Army. The pistol was produced in Belgium until 1914, when production ceased during World War I and never resumed. The Bergmann–Bayard was later produced in Denmark from 1922-1935.

Type Semi-automatic pistol
Place of origin Belgium

German Empire
Service history
In service Rif War

World War I

Spanish Civil War

German invasion of Denmark
Used by Denmark



Production history
Designer Theodor Bergmann
Designed 1901-1910
Manufacturer Anciens Etablissements Pieper, Herstal, Belgium
Produced 1901-1914 then 1922-1935 (Denmark)
Number built at least 12,000 to military users, at least 15,500 in total
Variants Bergmann Mars (1901), Model 1903, Model 1908, Model 1910, Model 1910/21
Specifications (Model 1910/21)
Weight 1,020 grams
Length 254mm
Barrel length 101mm
Cartridge 9mm Largo
Caliber 9mm
Action locked breech
Muzzle velocity 1,100-1,200 feet per second
Effective firing range 100 metres
Feed system 6- or 10-round removable box magazine
Sights Blade front, tangent leaf rear

End notes