The HS2000 traces its roots back to a service pistol known as the PHP (Prvi Hrvatski Pištolj or First Croatian Pistol), which was first produced in Croatia by privately owned industrial parts firm I. M. Metal in 1991. Designed by a team led by Marko Vukovic, the PHP was considered to be a solid design, but early versions were plagued by quality issues, due in large part to the difficulties of manufacturing during the Yugoslav war. Vukovic's team continued to tweak and improve the design over the next decade, releasing the HS95 (Hrvatski Samokres or Croatian Pistol) in 1995, and the HS2000 in 1999.
The HS2000 was adopted by the Croatian military and law enforcement as a standard issue sidearm and continues to fill that role today. The pistol was initially exported to the US market by Intrac and distributed by HSAmerica who sold the pistol in 9 mm as the HS2000.
In 2002, Springfield Armory, Inc negotiated licensing rights to the US market, and changed the name to the XD-9 (X-treme Duty 9×19mm Parabellum). Springfield Armory has since expanded the line to include ten models in three different calibers and five different cartridges, seven barrel lengths, and six finishes (black, black bi-tone, olive drab, olive drab bi-tone, flat dark earth, and flat dark earth bi-tone). In 2006, the industry press awarded the XD-45 the title of Handgun of the Year from both American Rifleman magazine and The Shooting Industry Academy of Excellence. The XD(M) series of pistols won Handgun of the Year again in 2009.
In January 2012, Springfield announced a new variant, to be marketed as the XD-S. While it shares many features with the original XD and XDM, its specifications differ in several important ways. The XD-S has a new Pre-Set trigger and a disassembly fail-safe, neither of which is currently incorporated into the XD or XD-M models. The Fail-Safe Disassembly prevents the disassembly lever from being manipulated when there is a magazine in the pistol. Conversely, when the disassembly lever is up, a magazine cannot be inserted into the pistol. This model, at only 1 in (25 mm) wide and initially available only in .45 ACP, is specifically designed for concealed carry. The XD-S .45 ACP has a single stack magazine with a 5 + 1 capacity (with an optional 7 + 1 magazine available) and a 3.3 in (84 mm) barrel.
In January 2013, Springfield unveiled the XD-S in 9mm. It is identical to the .45 ACP model in size and features. The only differences being that XD-S 9mm has a single stack magazine with a 7 + 1 capacity (with an optional 9 + 1 magazine available) and the 9mm is marginally heavier due to a smaller (9mm) bore in the barrel (more metal is left behind).