Jarmann M1884

The Jarmann M1884 is a Norwegian bolt-action repeating rifle designed in 1878 adopted in 1884. The Jarmann is the first centerfire, repeating bolt-action rifle, adopted as standard issue based on an entirely new design. Earlier rifles like the Swiss Vetterli used rimfire cartridges, the Winchester Hotchkiss and early models of the Remington Lee saw only limited military use, the German Mauser Model 71/84 and early Kropatschek rifles were based on earlier designs. The Jarmann's adoption, and subsequent modifications, turned the Norwegian Army from a fighting force armed with single-shot black-powder weapons into a force armed with modern repeating weapons firing smokeless ammunition. Several thousand were manufactured to equip both Norwegian and Swedish forces in the 1880s. The design is unique, and was the brainchild of Norwegian engineer Jacob Smith Jarmann. After the design had been phased out of the Norwegian Army, a number of the weapons were rebuilt as harpoon guns. 

Jarmann M1884
Class Manportable
Type Rifles
Manufacturer Jacob Smith Jarmann
Origin Norway
Country Name Origin Year
Norway 1878
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Jacob Smith Jarmann View

Despite the problems with the weapon, no fewer than 30,000 were manufactured for the Norwegian armed forces in the decade between its adoption in 1884 and the later adoption of the Krag–Jørgensen in 1894. A further 1500 were manufactured for the Swedish Navy in the same period. In Norwegian service, it replaced the Remington M1867 and the last few kammerladers still in use.

When the weapon was chosen and first issued, the military considered it a very good weapon. It had a good rate of fire and had less than half the spread of the Remington M1867 at 600 m (46 versus 96 cm). It was later eclipsed, however by the radical development of firearms at the time. Within a decade it was phased out and replaced by the Krag–Jørgensen rifle. Even though it was phased out, several second-line units were issued the weapon in 1905, when war between Norway and Sweden was considered imminent.

Towards the end of their use in the armed forces, the original gunpowder cartridges were replaced by cartridges filled with smokeless powder. Despite the increase in muzzle velocity, the sights were not altered, thus radically decreasing the accuracy of the rifle.

Weight - 4.5kg (10 lb)

Length - Unknown

Barrel length - 850mm (33.5 in)

Cartridge - 10.15 x 61R rimmed

Action - Bolt action

Rate of fire - Unknown, but as fast as the operator could operate the action

Muzzle velocity - 485 to 500m/s (1,191 to 1,640 ft/s)

Effective range - 2,400m (2,600 yd)

Feed system - 8 round tubular magazine

Sights - V-notch and front post

End notes