The Jarmann M1884 is a Norwegian bolt-action repeating rifle designed in 1878 adopted in 1884. The Jarmann is the first centerfire, repeating bolt-action rifle, adopted as standard issue based on an entirely new design. Earlier rifles like the Swiss Vetterli used rimfire cartridges, the Winchester Hotchkiss and early models of the Remington Lee saw only limited military use, the German Mauser Model 71/84 and early Kropatschek rifles were based on earlier designs. The Jarmann's adoption, and subsequent modifications, turned the Norwegian Army from a fighting force armed with single-shot black-powder weapons into a force armed with modern repeating weapons firing smokeless ammunition. Several thousand were manufactured to equip both Norwegian and Swedish forces in the 1880s. The design is unique, and was the brainchild of Norwegian engineer Jacob Smith Jarmann. After the design had been phased out of the Norwegian Army, a number of the weapons were rebuilt as harpoon guns.