Mannlicher M1895

The Mannlicher M1895 (German: Infanterie Repetier-Gewehr M.95, Hungarian: Gyalogsági Ismétlő Puska M95; "Infantry Repeating-Rifle M95") is a bolt-action rifle, designed by Ferdinand Ritter von Mannlicher that used a refined version of his revolutionary straight-pull action bolt, much like the Mannlicher M1890 carbine. It was nicknamed the Ruck-Zu(rü)ck (German slang for "back and forth") by Austrian troops and "Ta-Pum" by Italian troops who even wrote a song about it during The Great War.

The M1895 is unusual in employing a straight-pull bolt action, as opposed to the more common rotating bolt-handle of other rifles. It consequently renowned for combining a high rate of fire (around 30–35 rounds per minute) with reliability and sturdiness, although this requires decent care and maintenance with an extractor that is vulnerable to breakage due to a lack of primary extraction.

Originally they were chambered for the round-nosed 8×50mmR cartridge, but almost all were rechambered to accept the more powerful spitzer 8×56mmR cartridge in the 1930s.

Mannlicher M1895
Class Manportable
Type Rifles
Manufacturer Steyr Mannlicher
Production Period 1896 - 1920
Origin Austria-Hungary
Country Name Origin Year
Austria-Hungary 1895
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Austria-Hungary 1895 1945 View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Steyr Mannlicher 1896 1920 3500000 View

It was initially adopted and employed by the Austro-Hungarian Army throughout World War I, and retained post-war by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. The main foreign user was Bulgaria, which, starting in 1903, acquired large numbers and continued using them throughout both Balkan and World Wars. After Austria-Hungary's defeat in World War I, many were given to other Balkan states as war reparations. A number of these rifles also saw use in World War II, particularly by second line, reservist, and partisan units in Romania, Yugoslavia, Italy, and to lesser degree, Germany. Post war many were sold as cheap surplus, with some finding their way to the hands of African guerrillas in the 1970s and many more being exported to the United States as sporting and collectible firearms. The M1895 bolt also served as an almost exact template for the ill-fated Canadian M1905 Ross rifle, though the later M1910 used a complicated interrupted-thread instead of two solid lugs.

Type Bolt-action rifle
Place of origin Austria-Hungary
Service history
In service 1895–1945
1895–1918 Austria-Hungary
Used by Albania
Austria
Austria-Hungary
Kingdom of Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia
Finland
Nazi Germany
Kingdom of Greece
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Italy
Ottoman Empire
Second Polish Republic
Portugal
Qing Dynasty
Francoist Spain
Kingdom of Romania
Russian Empire
Kingdom of Serbia
State of Slovenes
Turkey
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Wars Boxer Rebellion
First Balkan War
Second Balkan War
World War I
Russian Civil War
Austro-Slovene conflict in Carinthia
Revolutions and interventions in Hungary
Second Italo-Ethiopian War
Spanish Civil War
Second Sino-Japanese War
Sudeten German uprising 1938
World War II
Production history
Designer Ferdinand Mannlicher
Designed 1895
Manufacturer 1896–1918: Œ.W.G. in Steyr
1897–1918: F.G.GY. in Budapest
1918–1920: Zbrojovka Brno
Produced 1896–1920
Number built approx. 3,500,000
Specifications (M95 Long Rifle)
Weight 3.78 kilograms (8.3 lb)
Length 1,272 millimetres (50.1 in)
Barrel length 765 millimetres (30.1 in)
Cartridge M95: 8×50mmR Mannlicher
M95/30 & 31.M: 8×56mmR
M95/24 & M95M: 8×57mm IS
Action Straight-pull bolt action
Rate of fire approx. 30–35 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity M93 (8×50mmR): 620 m/s (2,000 ft/s)
M30 (8×56mmR): 720 m/s (2,400 ft/s)
Feed system 5-round en bloc clip (stripper clip in M95/24 and M95M), internal box magazine
Sights Rear V-notch flip-up sight and front post (telescopic sight on sniper variant)

End notes