TT pistol

The TT-30 (Russian: 7,62-мм самозарядный пистолет Токарева образца 1930 года, 7,62 mm Samozaryadnyj Pistolet Tokareva obraztsa 1930 goda, "7.62 mm Tokarev self-loading pistol model 1930") is a Russian semi-automatic pistol. It was developed in the early 1930s by Fedor Tokarev as a service pistol for the Soviet military to replace the Nagant M1895 revolver that had been in use since Tsarist times, though it ended up being used in conjunction with rather than replacing the M1895. It served until 1952, when it was replaced by the Makarov pistol.

TT pistol
Class Manportable
Type Handguns
Manufacturer Tula Arms Plant (Tula Arsenal)
Production Period 1930 - 1952
Origin Russia (USSR)
Country Name Origin Year
Russia (USSR) 1930
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Russia (USSR) 1930 View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
Tula Arms Plant (Tula Arsenal) 1930 1952 View
Izhevsk Mechanical Plant 1930 1952 View
Norinco 1930 1952 View
FB "Lucznik" Radom 1930 1952 View
Uzinele Mecanice Cugir (ARMS Arsenal, Cugir) 1930 1952 View
Zastava Arms 1930 1952 View
FEG (Fegyver-es Gepgyar) 1930 1952 View

In 1930, the Revolutionary Military Council approved a resolution to test new small arms to replace its aging Nagant M1895 revolvers. During these tests, on January 7, 1931, the potential of a pistol designed by Fedor Tokarev was noted. A few weeks later, 1,000 TT-30s were ordered for troop trials, and the pistol was adopted for service in the Red Army.

But even as the TT-30 was being put into production, design changes were made to simplify manufacturing. Minor changes to the barrel, disconnector, trigger and frame were implemented, the most notable ones being the omission of the removable backstrap and changes to the full-circumference locking lugs. This redesigned pistol was the TT-33. Most TT-33s were issued to officers. The TT-33 was widely used by Soviet troops during World War II, but did not completely replace the Nagant.

Externally, the TT-33 is very similar to John Browning's blowback operated FN Model 1903 semiautomatic pistol, and internally it uses Browning's short recoil dropping-barrel system from the M1911 pistol. In other areas the TT-33 differs more from Browning's designs — it employs a much simpler hammer/sear assembly than the M1911, with an external hammer. This assembly is removable from the pistol as a modular unit and includes cartridge guides that provide reliable functioning. The Soviet engineers made several alterations to make the mechanism easier to produce and maintain, most notably is that the locking lugs go all around the barrel (not just on top), the side and bottom portions do not perform a locking function, but allow for simpler production. Some models use a captive recoil spring secured to the guide rod which does depend on the barrel bushing to hold it under tension. Production even machined the magazine feed lips into the removable hammer group to prevent damage and misfeeds when a distorted magazine was loaded into the magazine well. The TT-33 is chambered for the 7.62×25mm Tokarev cartridge, which was itself based on the similar 7.63×25mm Mauser cartridge used in the Mauser C96 pistol. The 7.62×25mm cartridge is powerful, has an extremely flat trajectory, and is capable of penetrating thick clothing and soft body armor. Able to withstand tremendous abuse, large numbers of the TT-33 were produced during World War II and well into the 1950s. In modern times the robust TT-33 has been converted to many extremely powerful cartridges including .38 Super and 9×23mm Winchester. The TT-33 omitted a safety catch other than the half cock notch which rendered the slide inoperable until the hammer was pulled back to full cock and then lowered manually to the half cock position. Many newer variants have manual safeties added, these vary greatly in placement and function.

Users  

  • Afghanistan
  •  Albania
  •  Algeria
  •  Angola
  •  Armenia
  •  Azerbaijan
  •  Bangladesh: Uses Chinese Type 54 copy.
  •  Belarus
  •  Benin
  •  Bosnia-Herzegovina
  •  Bulgaria
  •  Burundi: Issued to select officers of the Burundian National Defense Force.
  •  Cambodia
  •  Chad
  •  People's Republic of China: Produced in large numbers as the Type 54.
  •  Colombia
  •  Congo-Brazzaville
  •  Croatia
  •  East Germany Issued in small numbers to Volks Polizi (Peoples Police) in the early 1950s, replaced by Makarov PM in late 50s.
  •  Egypt: Produced from the 1950s.
  •  Equatorial Guinea
  •  Finland: Captured TT-33 pistols were carried by Finnish soldiers and partisans during the Winter War (1939-1940) and Continuation War (1941-1944) with the USSR. It was nicknamed the "Star Pistol" (tähti-pistooli) due to the large Red Army star embossed on the grip panels. Although large numbers were acquired, the Finnish military never produced ammunition or spares for them because they were in a non-standard caliber.
  •  Georgia
  •  Guinea
  •  Guinea-Bissau
  •  Hungary: Produced locally.
  •  Indonesia
  •  Iraq
  •  Kyrgyzstan
  •  Laos
  •  Libya
  •  Lithuania: Lithuanian Armed Forces.
  •  Madagascar
  •  Malta
  •  Mauritania
  •  Moldova
  •  Mongolia
  •  Montenegro
  •  Macedonia
  •  Morocco
  •  Mozambique
  •  Nazi Germany Used captured pistols
  •  North Korea: Produced locally as the Type 68.
  •  Pakistan: Used by Pakistan Army, Security Guards and Police. Produced locally. It is being replaced by the more modern 9 mm Beretta and SIG Sauer pistols.
  •  Poland: Produced locally in the Radom arms factory. Used by military and law enforcement groups; replaced by the P-64 pistol in the 1960s.
  •  Romania: Produced locally at the Cugir factory under the designation "TTC".
  •  Russian Federation
  •  Serbia
  •  Sierra Leone
  •  Somalia
  •  Soviet Union
  •  Syria
  •  Uganda
  •  Vietnam
  •  Yugoslavia: Produced locally.
  •  Zambia
  •  Zimbabwe

Type Semi-automatic pistol
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1930–present
Wars World War II, Katyn Massacre,Korean War, Chinese Civil War, Vietnam War, Laotian Civil War, Cambodian Civil War, Cambodian-Vietnamese War, Sino-Vietnamese War,Soviet war in Afghanistan,Cambodian–Thai border stand-off, and numerous others
Production history
Designer Fedor Tokarev
Designed 1930
Manufacturer Tula Arsenal, Izhevsk Arsenal,Norinco, Femaru, Radom Arsenal, Cugir Arsenal,Zastava Arms, FÉG
Produced 1930–1952
Number built 1,700,000
Variants TT-30, TT-33, TTC, M48, M48 Tokagypt, M57, M70, M70, R-3, Type 51, Type 54, Type 68
Specifications
Weight 854 g (30.1 oz)
Length 194 mm (7.6 in)
Barrel length 116 mm (4.6 in)
Height 134 mm (5.3 in)
Cartridge 7.62×25mm Tokarev
Action Short recoil actuated, locked breech, single action
Muzzle velocity 480 m/s (1,575 ft/s)
Effective firing range 50 m
Feed system 8-round detachable box magazine
Sights Front blade, rear notch
156 mm (6.1 in) sight radius

End notes