Rapier is a British point defence surface-to-air missile (SAM) developed for the British Army and Royal Air Force. Entering service in 1971, it eventually replaced all other anti-aircraft weapons in Army service; guns for low-altitude targets, and the English Electric Thunderbird, used against longer-range and higher-altitude targets. As the expected air threat moved from medium-altitude strategic missions to low-altitude strikes, the fast reaction time and high maneuverability of the Rapier made it more formidable than either of these weapons, replacing most of them by 1977. It remains the primary air-defense weapon in British service after almost 35 years of service, and is expected to serve until 2020.

Class Missile
Type Surface to Air
Manufacturer British Aerospace
Origin United Kingdom - UK (Great Britain)
Country Name Origin Year
United Kingdom - UK (Great Britain) 1971
Country Name Operational Year Retirement Year
Australia View
Brunei View
Germany View
Indonesia View
Iran (Persia) View
Oman (Muscat) View
Qatar View
Singapore View
Switzerland View
Turkey (Ottoman Empire) View
United Arab Emirates View
United Kingdom - UK (Great Britain) View
United States of America View
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia) View
ManufacturerName Production From Production To Quantity
British Aerospace 1983 View
Matra BAe Dynamics View

Rapier began development in 1961 as a private venture at British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) known as "Sightline".[3] The project was to combat supersonic, low level, high manoeuvrability craft, eschewing any attempt at automated guidance in favour of a purely optical system. The operator would keep the telescopic gunsight centred on the target, and the automated systems would guide the missile to that point. The optical system ensured high accuracy, so it was developed with the intent of directly hitting its target, reducing the size of the warhead required to guarantee a kill, and eliminating the need for a proximity fuse. BAC joked that the system was a "hit-ile", as opposed to a "miss-ile".

At the time the British Army was planning on purchasing the advanced American MIM-46 Mauler system for its air-defence needs. When Mauler ran into problems in 1963, the Ministry of Defence issued requirement ET.316 and started funding Sightline as a backup in case Mauler did not deliver. That eventuality came to pass, and ET.316 was completely developed as "Rapier", with the first test firings of the missile taking place in 1966.[3] Complete systems were tested in 1968, which led to a production contract issued in 1969. The system entered service in 1971 with the British Army, and 1974 with the Royal Air Force Regiment.

The original Rapier took the form of a wheeled launcher with four missiles, an optical tracker unit, a generator and trailer of stores. The launcher consists of a large cylindrical unit carrying two missiles on each side, the surveillance radar dish and "Identification friend or foe" (IFF) system under a radome on top, the guidance computer and radar electronics at the bottom, and a prominent parabolic antenna for sending guidance commands to the missiles on the front.

The search radar was of the pulsed Doppler type with a range of about 15 km. The aerial, located at the top of the launcher, rotated about once a second, looking for moving targets that are "visible" due to their doppler shift. When one was located, a lamp would light up on the Selector Engagement Zone (SEZ), a box containing 32 orange lamps arranged in a circle about the size of an automobile steering wheel. The radar operator could also blank out returns from other directions, providing jamming resistance.

The optical tracker unit was made up of a stationary lower section and a rotating upper section. The lower section housed the operator controls, while the upper section housed the tracking optics. The operator's optical system was a modified telescope containing a Dove prism to prevent the image 'toppling' as the optics rotate in azimuth. This system meant that, unlike a periscope, the operator did not have to move in order to track the target. The upper section also contained a separate missile tracking system that was slaved to the operator's optics, based on a television camera optimized for the IR band.

Upon detection, the optical tracking system would then be slewed to target azimuth and the operator would then search for the target in elevation. The operator's field of view would depend on the target range: "wide" at about 20 degrees or "track" at about 4.8 degrees. When the target was found the operator switches to "track" and uses a joystick to keep the target centred in the telescope. Once a steady track was established the missile was fired. The TV camera on the tracker was tuned to track the four flares on the missile's tail. Like the operator's telescope, the TV system had two views, one about 11 degrees wide for the initial "capture", and another at 0.55 degrees for midcourse tracking.

The difference between the line-of-sight of the operator's telescope and the missile's flare was calculated by the computer in the base of the launcher. Guidance updates were sent to the missile through the transmitter on the launcher platform, and received on small antennas on the rear of the mid-body fins. The operator simply kept the telescope's crosshairs on the target using the joystick, and the missile would automatically fly into the line-of-sight, a system of operation known as SACLOS. The basic concept is very similar to the one used by most anti-tank missiles, with the exception that those systems normally use small wires to send guidance information to the missile, rather than a radio link.

The missile contained a small 1.4 kg warhead with a contact fuse and a single-stage solid-rocket motor that accelerated the missile to about 650 m/s. Engagement time to the maximum effective range was about 13 seconds. Response time from the start of the target detection to missile launch is about 6 seconds, which has been repeatedly confirmed in live firing.

The whole system, along with its crew, was delivered by two Land Rovers designated as the Fire Unit Truck (FUT) and the Detachment Support Vehicle (DSV). Royal Artillery batteries comprised three troops each of four fire units while RAF Regiment squadrons had eight fire units. By 1980 each Royal Artillery fire unit consisted of a (24 volt) 101 FC 1 tonne Land Rover towing the Rapier Launcher and carrying 4 missiles on board, a 109-inch 3/4 ton 24v FFR (Fitted For Radio) Land Rover towing a 1-ton Missile Supply Trailer (MST), containing up to a further 10 missiles. Blindfire radar (see below) was only provided for 1/3 of fire units in British Army service, and for all fire units in the RAF Regiment.

General Information
Developed by UK
Deployed by Australia, Brunei, Germany, Indonesia, Iran, Oman, Qatar, Singapore, Switzerland, Turkey, UAE, UK, USA, Zambia
Development Year 1983
Deployment Year 1994
Platform Towed Rapier: A launcher mounted on 2-wheel, A-frame trailer (basic version) towed typically by 1-ton Land Rover. Tracked Rapier: Tracked Rapier Launch Vehicle, based on RCM748 Rapier 2000: 2-wheel trailer
Number manufactured 25,900 (through 1998)
Contractor British Aerospace Defence Matra BAe Dynamics Ltd.

Dimensions and Performance
Length 2.24m
Body Diameter 13.3cm
Wing/Fin span 38.1cm
Launch Weight 42.6kg
Range 500-6,500m
Speed Mach 2.0

Propulsion Solid propulsion
Warhead 1.4kg HE semi-armor pircing(Mk2A), 1.4kg HE blast fragmentation effect(Mk2B)
Guidance Semiautomatic command to line of sight guidance

End notes